Evidence for the Exodus

God guided the Israelite’s through the Exodus, where He defeated Pharaoh’s army at the Red Sea. This is indeed one of the greatest narratives found throughout the entirety of the Holy Bible, and contains some of God’s greatest signs, as when He allowed Moses to split open the Red Sea, allowing the Israelite’s to pass through the enormous water mass.

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The Israelite’s were free from Pharaoh’s tyranny when they were being led by Moses, by God’s greatness.

It is, of course, unfortunate, however, that there exist a people who wish to deny the historicity of this great event, being at the heart of the Book of Exodus and one of the greatest acts of God in the entire Holy Bible. Indeed, there exists a charge against God’s words that the events within, such as the Exodus, are nothing more than historical fiction rather than events that have truly occurred in reality. Regarding these charges, we shall now respond to them, and show that exodus is not a mere fiction in the Holy Bible.

To begin, the first thing we will do is find out when the exodus took place. Now, Scholarly research has shown that the reign of king Solomon began in 970 BC. Let us now read a passage from 1 Kings.

[1 Kings 6:1] Solomon began to build the temple for the Lord in the four hundred eightieth year after the Israelites came out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of his reign over Israel, in the second month, in the month of Ziv.

Thus, according to 1 Kings 6:1, the fourth year of the reign of Solomon (which would be 966 BC) came 480 years after the Israelite’s came out of the land of Egypt. So, when did the Exodus begin? We merely add 480 years to 966 BC (966 BC was again, the fourth year of Solomon’s reign), and we get a date for the start of the exodus at 1446 BC. There are some out there who think the number of 480 years in 1 Kings 6:1 is not literal and merely represents twelve generations of forty years each, forty years being a representation of a length of a generation — however this proposition has been entirely rebutted, as would be expected of such a random assertion. Another point to make is that the phrase four hundred and eightieth year in 1 Kings 6:1 is ordinal, not cardinal (480th year, not 480 years), which shatters any attempt to interpret it as a representation of twelve generations rather than a precise counting of years, and therefore we can know for sure that 1 Kings 6:1 establishes the exodus as occurring 1446 BC, which would be 480 years before the fourth year of the reign of Solomon. The next passage to look at is in the Book of Judges;

[Judges 11:26] While Israel lived 300 years in Heshbon and its villages, in Aroer and its villages, and in all the cities that are on the banks of the Arnon, why didn’t you take them back at that time?

Now, Judges 11-12:7 took place at the time of Jephthah, who was one of the judges in the Book of Judges over Israel, and under him, the Ammonites were defeated. Dating the time of the judges is not an easy task, but Jephthah is generally thought to have lived somewhere around 1100 BC. Generally, it can be assured that it was at least somewhere between 1130 BC – 1070 BC. Now, according to Judges 11:26, the conquest of Joshua began 300 years prior to Jephthah’s judging, meaning Joshua’s conquest, according to Judges 11:26, started around 1430 BC – 1370 BC. Now, the exodus would have started at least over 40 years prior to Joshua’s conquest, because the Hebrews wandered throughout the Sinai for forty years after the exodus according to the exodus account. Setting the date another 40 years back, we get a date of the start of the exodus, according to Judges 11:26, between 1470 BC – 1410 BC, comfortably over the 1446 BC dating we got from 1 Kings 6:1. The third passage we will use to date the exodus is 1 Chronicles 6:33-37.

[1 Chronicles 6:33-37] Here are the men who served, together with their sons: From the Kohathites: Heman, the musician, the son of Joel, the son of Samuel, the son of Elkanah, the son of Jeroham, the son of Eliel, the son of Toah, the son of Zuph, the son of Elkanah, the son of Mahath, the son of Amasai, the son of Elkanah, the son of Joel, the son of Azariah, the son of Zephaniah, the son of Tahath, the son of Assir, the son of Ebiasaph, the son of Korah,

In 1 Chronicles 6:33-37, we are given 18 generations from Korah in the time of Moses to Heman in the time of David, meaning Moses and David were separated by 18 generations. Thus, this would be 19 generations between Moses and Solomon  (because Solomon was David’s son). One generation usually lasts about 25 years. Assuming 25 years per generation, for 19 generations, we get 475 years between Solomon and Moses. Assuming, let’s say, a 40 year range to ensure accuracy, we’ll estimate 455-495 years for these 19 generations to pass by. So according to 1 Chronicles 6:33-37, Solomon and Moses are separated by about 455-495 years, in which is almost exactly the same as the 480 year difference we are given between Solomon to Moses in 1 Kings 6:1. 1 Chronicles 6:33-37 would put the exodus perhaps anywhere between 1480 BC – 1440 BC. The final passage we will be using as a dating method for the exodus is Ezekiel 40:1.

[Ezekiel 40:1] In the twenty-fifth year of our exile, at the beginning of the year, on the tenth day of the month in the fourteenth year after Jerusalem had been captured, on that very day the Lord’s hand was on me, and He brought me there.

Ezekiel 40:1 records the 17th jubilee. But how do we know Ezekiel 40:1 represents a jubilee at all? The phrase “at the beginning of the year” in this verse, translates to Rosh Hashanah in the Hebrew, which was a phrase used to represent the very beginning of the New Year. If you focus on the details of this verse, however, you’ll realize that the verse says it is “on the tenth day of the month”. One may ask, how it can be the beginning of the year if it is on the tenth of the month rather than the first? An Old Testament Scholar, Rodger C. Young explains in a paper (pg. 271) that the only time such an event occurs on the Jewish calendar is when it is the year of the jubilee, meaning that Ezekiel 40:1 represents a jubilee year. So, exactly what year was Ezekiel 40:1 representing? Another hint in the verse is when the verse says “on the tenth day of the month in the fourteenth year after Jerusalem had been captured.” Ezekiel 40:1 represented the year that would come fourteen years after the capture of Jerusalem. Scholars generally contest either a dating of 587 BC, or 586 BC, but in the same paper, Rodger C. Young establishes based on Ezekiel 40:1 that Jerusalem must have been captured in 587 BC.

So, if Ezekiel 40:1 represents fourteen years after 587 BC, 587 BC being the first year, we realize 574 BC is the fourteenth year that Ezekiel 40:1 represents. Now that we know this, we understand Ezekiel 40:1 represents both the year 574 BC and the 17th jubilee. One Jubilee is 49 years, and so 17 Jubilees would span 833 years (17 x 49). If we go back 833 years from 574 BC, starting at 574 BC for the first year, it is evident that the counting of the jubilees begun at 1406 BC. Rodger C. Young concludes;

But when we combine this with the Seder ‘Olam’s (and the Talmud’s) statement that Ezekiel’s Jubilee was the seventeenth Jubilee, then the fact that this gives 1406 as not just the start of a cycle, but the start of the very fast cycle, in agreement with the date of 1406 for Israel’s entry into the land as measured by an independent method, then it logically follows that the counting really did begin in 1406, and the Levitical priests were faithfully measuring the Sabbatical and Jubilee years over all the time that Israel was in its land. (pg. 276)

So, as the Israelite’s started counting their jubilees at their entry into the holy land from the exodus in 1406 BC, we can simply go 40 years back from 1406 BC to get the date of when the exodus started, and behold, we arrive to find the exodus started at 1446 BC.  Thus, we have utilized four independent dating methods to quantify when the exodus began, from 1 Kings 6:1, Judges 11:26, 1 Chronicles 6:33-37 and Ezekiel 40:1, and we have unanimously come to the same time in history about when the exodus began. The fact that four independent dating methods for the beginning of the exodus bring us to the same time period in regards to when the exodus began shows that the exodus was a true historical event, for coincidences do not simply add up like this.

An important area of research to look at when determining the historicity of the exodus is Joshua’s conquest of Canaan, said to commence almost immediately after the Israelite’s entered the Jordan (1406 BC). We have extraordinary historical attestation to the annihilation of Canaanite cities dating to and right after the 1400’s BC when Joshua’s conquest was to take place. Some think that we would expect to see the complete destruction of Canaanite cities around 1400 BC, but unfortunately for these people, this is not what the Biblical text says happened. In  his book Kingdom and Priests: A History of Old Testament Israel, Eugene H. Merrill, an Old Testament scholar explains in the following statement:

Signs of major devastation in the period from 1400 to 1375 would be an acute embarrassment to the traditional view because the Biblical witness is univocal that Israel was commanded to annihilate the Canaanite populations, but to spare the cities and towns in which they lived. And the record explicitly testifies that this mandate was faithfully carried out. The only exceptions were Jericho, Ai, and Hazor. (pg. 90)

In other words, the Exodus narrative only says that the cities Jericho, Ai and Hazor underwent destruction, whilst other Canaanite cities themselves were spared though they had their populations annihilated. And in fact, this is exactly what we see — the only Canaanite cities during the time of Joshua that were actually destroyed align perfectly with the Exodus narrative. In perfect alignment with the Biblical record, the only cities that underwent destruction in the time of Joshua were Jericho, Ai, and Hazor. Let’s discuss all three of them, starting with Jericho.

The first man to date the destruction of Jericho was John Garstang, placing the violent crushing of this city at about 1400 BC. After Garstang had concluded that this was the date of the destruction of Jericho, Palestinian archaeology underwent major advancement and seeing his work was critiqued, he asked a woman named Kathleen Kenyon to re-examine his work and update his findings. After she did so, she ended up seeing that the destruction must be re-dated to 1550 BC, which ended up being accepted by the academic community during her time. This initially posed a problem to the biblical account. Fortunately, decades later an archaeologist named Bryant G. Wood examined her publications, and utilizing new information on top of even newer technology, he concluded that the destruction of Jericho should be dated back to 1400 BC in coordination with Garstang’s initial dating of the destruction of Jericho. Excavations earlier lead by John Garstang had found four royal scarabs that post-date 1550 BC in the site of Jericho, including a scarab from the reign of Hatshepsut (c. 1506-1488 BC) a scarab and a seal from the reign of Thutmose III (c. 1506-1452 BC), and two scarabs from the reign of Amenhotep III (c. 1408-1369 BC). This would imply continual occupation of the site of Jericho up until about c. 1400 BC.

Radiometric dates at the site of Jericho have often yielded a destruction date of 1550 BC, which mainly contributed to Kenyon’s dating of Jericho’s destruction during this time. However, it has recently been revealed that radiometric dates have an offset of about 150 years on average before 1400 BC. Applying a 150-year offset to the radiometric dates of Jericho’s destruction of 1550 BC, we arrive almost too coincidentally at a corrected date of 1400 BC. The archaeological evidence indicates a destruction of Jericho during 1400 BC, at the end of the Late Bronze Age I Period.

Now that we’ve discussed all that, let’s discuss the city Ai. Recent excavations have shown to be very promising. Take a look at the biblical city of Ai.

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The city of Ai (modern day Khirbet el-Maqatir) perfectly establishes Joshua’s conquest. Excavations in Khirbet el-Maqatir reveal many finds, including a fortress and scarab that date to the Late Bronze Age I that conclusively date the destruction of Ai to about 1400 BC, perfectly paralleling the time of the conquest.

As for Hazor, Hazor contains two destruction layers — one in the 15th century BC and 13th century BC. Coincidentally, if the exodus dates to 1446 BC then the following Biblical narrative would necessitate Hazor be destroyed twice, once under Joshua in the late 15th century BC in Joshua 11 and the second time under Deborah and Barak in the 13th century BC in Judges 4. Therefore, the evidence conclusively establishes that archaeology abundantly testifies to the confirmation of the account of Joshua’s conquest, and exactly when it happened, thereby providing great validity for the Exodus account.

Now, some extraordinary findings have been recently made. Originally, it had been assumed that the Merneptah Stele is the earliest reference in archaeology to Israel, dating back astonishingly early to 1200 BC. But it gets better. In 2001 and 2010, two publications were made that found a reference to the existence of Israel as early as 1350 BC on an ancient topographical relief known as the Berlin Statue Pedestal Relief 21687, located in the Berlin Museum. The first paper was written by Manfred Gorg, and second paper was also written by Manfred Gorg along with Christopher Theis and Peter van der Veen. Both papers established a reading of the ancient Berlin Pedestal most likely read an archaic form of the name Israel, making it an astonishingly early reference to the Israelite nation. In further confirmation of this reading, a 2012 paper published a 3D laser scanning of the Berlin Pedestal Relief that reaffirmed the reading of the two previous papers, further conclusively showing that Israel is in fact referenced in the Berlin Pedestal Reliefestablishing the earliest recording of the nation of Israel in history. Now, why is this important? According to the Exodus, the Hebrews left Egypt and entered into the promised land (Israel) in 1406 BC. This means that almost immediately after the nation of Israel is established, according to the Exodus, the first reference to the nation appears in the archaeological record. The chronology of the Exodus is confirmed by such findings.

Not only do we have historical confirmation of these segments of the Exodus narrative, but the massive sites and regional locations in which would be required for such an extraordinary amount of Israelite’s to travel from Egypt are also attested to. This is an image of the Oasis of Hazeroth, which according to the Bible was one of the locations that the Israelite’s passed through during the exodus, abundantly recorded in various passages of the Pentateuch (five books of Moses).

There are various Biblical passages that mention the Oasis of Hazeroth. These include Numbers 11:35, Numbers 12:16 and Deuteronomy 1:1. This means the locations of where the Bible told us the Israelite’s went through during the exodus not only exist, but are capable of containing such an abundant amount of peoples. No one will question the humor that some people expect remains of extensive farming locations, numerous altars, amongst other things left by the Israelite’s during the exodus, even though it is virtually impossible for such things to survive (or exist in the first place) as a result of several hundred thousand Israelite’s living in a semi-nomadic lifestyle for a mere forty years, which would have much clues covered up by over 3,000 years of heavy erosion and the shifting and alternating desert sands.

Moving forwards, we shall now look at the amazing convergence of the Exodus narrative and Egyptian archaeology. Now, before the exodus, or before 1446 BC, the Israelite’s were foreign slaves to the Egyptians, being forced to build cities for them, amongst other things.

[Exodus 1:11] So the Egyptians assigned taskmasters over the Israelites to oppress them with forced labor. They built Pithom and Rameses as supply cities for Pharaoh.

This is the record of the Holy Bible. What about the Egyptian record? Now, the tomb of vizier Rekhmire, from 1460 BC depicts foreign slaves with an inscription on it saying “making bricks for the workshop-storeplace of the Temple of Amun at Karnak in Thebes.” These are Egyptian inscriptions of foreign slaves in Egypt. The amazing thing is that this inscription is dated to c. 1460 BC (reign of Thutmose III), which parallels the Biblical account of the exodus in which we know the Israelite’s were foreign slaves to the Egyptians just prior to 1446 BC. In other words, we know that the Egyptians had foreign slaves in the exact time that we are told in the Book of Exodus that the Israelite’s were slaves to the Egyptians.

As is also noted by the inscription on the tomb of vizier Rekhmire, Egyptian slaves were engaged in brick-making. It is also known that Egyptian slaves were engaged in both construction work and fieldwork, and all of this is what the Hebrews are described to have been doing in the Book of Exodus. The very architect of Ramesside chronology himself, Kenneth Kitchen in a study titled From the Brickfields of Egypt, has also demonstrated that Egyptian brick-makers had to meet quotas for their brick production — a fact that is highly reminiscent of Exodus 5:4-19.

Now, assuming the date of the exodus is 1446 BC, the pharaoh of the time of the exodus would be Amenhotep II. This is where the Egyptian record continues to confirm with the narrative of the Book of Exodus in the Old Testament. Amenhotep II was the pharaoh of the exodus, yes? May I ask the question, which pharaoh came after Amenhotep II? It was Thutmose IV. There is yet another Egyptian record known as the Dream Stele, and according to the Dream Stele, Thutmose IV, the heir of Amenhotep II, was not the legal heir to the throne of the pharaoh. This is precisely because Amenhotep II’s eldest son would have died in the tenth plague according to the exodus.

[Exodus 11:1-8] The Lord said to Moses, “I will bring one more plague on Pharaoh and on Egypt. After that, he will let you go from here. When he lets you go, he will drive you out of here. Now announce to the people that both men and women should ask their neighbors for silver and gold jewelry.” The Lord gave the people favor in the sight of the Egyptians. And the man Moses was highly regarded in the land of Egypt by Pharaoh’s officials and the people. So Moses said, “This is what Yahweh says: ‘About midnight I will go throughout Egypt, and every firstborn male in the land of Egypt will die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sits on his throne to the firstborn of the servant girl who is behind the millstones, as well as every firstborn of the livestock. Then there will be a great cry of anguish through all the land of Egypt such as never was before, or ever will be again. But against all the Israelites, whether man or beast, not even a dog will snarl, so that you may know that Yahweh makes a distinction between Egypt and Israel. All these officials of yours will come down to me and bow before me, saying: Leave, you and all the people who follow you. After that, I will leave.’” And he left Pharaoh’s presence in fierce anger.

As we can see, the Biblical account records that pharaoh’s son died during the exodus, and the Egyptian account readily confirms this Biblical fact as a historical fact. Another striking parallel between history and the Bible that affirms its reality and the reality of the exodus.

Now, one of the first few pharaoh’s after the exodus took place was pharaoh Akhenaten, who reigned from around 1353 BC to 1336 BC.

Now according to the Amarna Letters, which we’ve discussed before, very shocking information is revealed to us. Akhenaten actually converted to monotheism (the belief that there is one God), and even tried to convert all of Egypt to monotheism (giving him the title of the ‘Heretical King’ after his death). Before him, all of the Egyptian pharaohs and peoples were polytheistic, believing in many gods, although the Israelite’s only believed in one true God. Right after the exodus takes place and as the God of Israel defends the monotheistic Hebrews against the army of pharaoh, we note that one of the first few pharaoh’s to reign thereafter shockingly converts to monotheism. This perhaps indicates Akhenaten realizing that his false gods were inferior to the one true God of Israel. The crushing defeat of Egypt could have influenced the theology of Akhenaten, causing him to convert to monotheism.

Now, there is a claim that there is absolutely no archaeological evidence of a mass exodus of people during the time in which the exodus had supposedly taken place or that the Egyptian army as recorded in Exodus 14:26-28 was utterly destroyed. Contrary to these claims, recent findings of archaeology show this is absolutely not true.

Verily, archaeology gives fantastic insight and confirmation to the account of the exodus. Manfred Bietak, a highly respected scholar, excavated the ancient city of Avaris, a major city and military base of Egypt during the 18th Dynasty that had approximately 25,000 inhabitants. Bietak’s excavations revealed that the entire city of Avaris was abandoned at once. Indeed, in a paper titled Perunefer: the principal New Kingdom naval base, Bietak explains the following in a report regarding some geophysical investigations at Avaris;

 Another important matter is the stratigraphy, which shows the abandonment of the site of Tell el Daba/Ezbet Helmy after the reign of Amenhotep II and its reactivation in the late Eighteenth Dynasty. (pg. 17)

Indeed, Bietak’s excavations at ancient Avaris (biblical city of Rameses, modern Tell el-Dab’a) reveals it was entirely abandoned at one point in history. Bietak says that this abandonment occurred after the reign of Amenhotep II (transition between Amenhotep II and Thutmose IV), but in a paper titled Toward Pinpointing the Timing of the Egyptian Abandonment of Avaris During the Middle of the 18th Dynasty by the scholar Douglas Petrovich, the abandonment of Avaris was subsequently shown to have happened during the reign of Amenhotep II himself, rather than during Amenhotep II’s transition with Thutmose IV (or even the actual reign of Thutmose IV). So, during the reign of Amenhotep II, the pharaoh of the exodus, tens of thousands of people abandon an entire major Egyptian city! Coincidentally, the Book of Exodus tells us that under the reign of the exodus-pharaoh, tens of thousands of Hebrews abandon Egypt. There are some people I’ve met who claim that this abandonment of Avaris was actually related to the Hyksos, but this is impossible, as the Hyksos had been removed from Egypt during the reign of Ahmose I (1550 BC), more than a century before the reign of the pharaoh Amenhotep II, which is when the abandonment of Avaris took place (1450-1440 BC?). The abandonment of Avaris during the reign of Amenhotep II establishes solid evidence for the historicity of the exodus from Egypt.

In fact, during the reign of Amenhotep II and thereafter, the Egyptian army suddenly transitioned from invading and conquering their dissenters, to making peace treaties. As recorded in the Amarna Letters, specifically El-Amarna Tablet 109;

Previously, at the mere sight of an Egyptian, the kings of Canaan would fl[ee before him, but] now the sons of ‘Abdi-Asirta make men from Egypt prowl [like do]gs.

Thus we see that the Egyptian army was once extraordinarily powerful having absolutely no rivals, even the kings of Canaan fleeing before the power of Egypt. Suddenly, at least by the 14th century BC, Egypt was greatly reduced, so that Canaan no longer feared Egypt. In fact, we can see this fact corroborated by the fact that Egypt suddenly started trying to create peace treaties following the height of their military glory rather than invading whomever it pleased under Amenhotep II’s reign. Douglas Petrovich, in the paper mentioned above, says the following statement;

Once the native Egyptians eradicated the foreign invaders who had dominated their landscape for a century, they quickly moved to rebuild the destroyed city and establish it as a storehouse, eventually to be utilized as a military garrison with weapon-making facilities. Peru-nefer/Avaris became the most vital cog in the unprecedented military campaigning under the reigns of Thutmose III and Amenhotep II. Yet during the height of Egypt’s enterprise and glory, her naval base was abandoned mysteriously, and her imperialistic machinery ground to a halt. Egypt suddenly sought to make treaties rather than seize what she desired. (pg. 21)

In other words, Egypt, during the height of its empire and imperialistic glory was suddenly diminished and it’s major naval base of Avaris is suddenly abandoned, and therefore Egypt could not continue invading what it wanted to conquer. This is corroborating confirmation of pharaoh’s army being heavily defeated during the event of the exodus.

[Exodus 14:26-28] Then the Lord said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand over the sea so that the waters may flow back over the Egyptians and their chariots and horsemen.” Moses stretched out his hand over the sea, and at daybreak the sea went back to its place. The Egyptians were fleeing toward it, and the Lord swept them into the sea. The water flowed back and covered the chariots and horsemen—the entire army of Pharaoh that had followed the Israelite’s into the sea. Not one of them survived.

Finally, the Pentateuch (books of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy), contain a vast knowledge regarding the customs, geography, and etymology of ancient Egypt. Joshua Berman states the following; “At best, we have a text—the Hebrew Bible—that exhibits a good grasp of a wide range of fairly standard aspects of ancient Egyptian realities.”

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One thing to note is the usage of strictly Egyptian names in the Book of Exodus, that primarily and only existed in usage in Egypt in the mid-second millennium BC. As the renowned scholar, Richard Hess puts it,

Although many of these names remained in use later as well, some of them, such as Pinḥas, show an explicit connection with Egyptian personal names at the period in question, and a few, including Ḥevron (Exodus 6:18) and Puah (Exodus 1:15), are attested as personal names only in the mid-second millennium (that is, the 18th to the 13th centuries BCE). The use of other Egyptian words found in the early chapters of Exodus but nowhere else in the Bible similarly supports the view of a connection with Egypt in the same period. Such pieces of incidental information, which would not have been known to a later scribe, point to an antiquity and authenticity in the Exodus account that is difficult to explain otherwise.

Furthermore, the books of the Pentateuch exhibit great knowledge of the geography of Egypt. For example, Genesis 13:10 says “…the entire Jordan Valley as far as Zoar was well watered everywhere like the Lord’s garden and the land of Egypt…” Steven Collins, a specialist in the region of the Jordan Valley comments on this in his book Discovering the City of Sodom regarding the passage Genesis 13:10;

“Here, the well-watered kikkar is compared to (lower) Egypt and the Nile River, which flows northward, dividing into a series of channels in the Nile Delta as it empties into the Mediterranean Sea. The parallels are striking. Both the Nile and the Jordan empty into saline waters. And — on a much smaller scale — the Jordan, like the Nile, also has an alluvial “delta” through which it empties into the northern end of the Dead Sea. Additionally, in antiquity both rivers underwent an annual inundation due to rainfall and snowmelt far upstream. It seems that the writer of Genesis was familiar with the lower Nile area and viewed the Jordan as a ‘Nile in miniature.'” (pg. 117)

In other words, the author of the Pentateuch seems to be highly familiar with the land of Egypt and its geography, including the Nile River. Another fact in the account of the Exodus that confirms the authors specialized knowledge of geography and political state of ancient Egypt is Exodus 13:17, that tells us when the Israelite’s are leaving Egypt, they avoided the northern route in order to avoid military engagement. Joshua Berman also notes that the”…discovery of extensive Egyptian fortifications all along that route from the period in question confirms the accuracy of this observation.” This is consistent with Moses, who was “trained in all the wisdom of the Egyptians” (Acts 7:22) according to the Bible.

Even more evidence of the Pentateuch’s considerable knowledge of ancient Egypt’s customs and geography in the time of the Exodus remains plentiful. For example, you’ll notice in the entire Pentateuch, the name of the Egyptian pharaoh is never given, even though later biblical books like 1 and 2 Kings give the name of the pharaoh they describe (Shishak; 1 Kings 14:25, Necho; 2 Kings 23:29). If the Exodus account was invented, we would expect the Pentateuch to simply make up the name of the pharaoh. However, it seems that the author of Pentateuch employed an Egyptian type of writing custom that only existed in the 15th – 11th centuries BC in Egyptian literature, in which the name of Egypt’s king is never mentioned, rather he is simply referred to by the title of ‘pharaoh’.

Throughout ancient Egyptian literature in the second millennium BC, the power of the king of Egypt is portrayed in Egyptian texts as existing through pharaoh’s arm. In a paper titled The Arm of God Versus the Arm of Pharaoh in the Exodus Narratives by James Hoffmeier, one of the renowned scholars of our day, James quotes many of these Egyptian texts, including two relevant ones here which speak about Amenhotep II (pg. 381);

The accompanying inscription reads: ‘Amenhotep… who smites foreign rules of the far north, he is a god whose arm is great’. He is also called the ‘good god, strong of arm who achieves with his arms’ (pg. 381)

However, something important that James Hoffmeier points out is that Moses does the exact same thing with God. In the Book of Exodus Moses writes the following;

[Exodus 13:14] “In the future, when your son asks you, ‘What does this mean?’ say to him, ‘By the strength of His hand the Lord brought us out of Egypt, out of the place of slavery.

Moses portrays God’s power by God’s arm (so to speak). This is indeed no coincidence. James Hoffmeier points out that Moses wrote in this kind of language as to show that Yahweh’s power is greater than the power of pharaoh, and therefore defeated pharaoh and his gods, and therefore the arm of Yahweh overpowered the arm of pharaoh. James Hoffmeier thus says;

“The drama of the exodus narratives in describing the struggle between God and Pharaoh’s arms is heightened when it is realized that the arm of the Egyptian king was thought to be infused with strength of the supreme god Amun, or the war gods Seth or Montu. The polemical and legitimizing value of these expressions, which appear to go hand in hand, would have had special significance for the reader or hearer of the exodus narratives. By extending his victorious arm, God showed his superiority over pharaoh and the gods of Egypt.” (pg. 387)

The evidence shows that the author of the Pentateuch is highly familiar with the customs, literature, and geography of Egypt of the second millennium BC, in the time of Moses, showing that the account of the Exodus is a highly, highly trustworthy source.

Indeed, there is great historical confirmation of the Exodus of the Holy Bible and the Book of Exodus in the Old Testament deriving from the historical record, indeed bearing much evidence in showing it is the truth of history, rather than anything else. But considering this was initially told to us by God in the first place, what else could we have expected?

It is evident that the narrative of the Bible is clearly and plainly historical fact, and this is being recognized at a greater and greater amount as time passes on. Hallelujah!

[Jeremiah 10:10] But Yahweh is the true God; He is the living God and eternal King. The earthquakes at His wrath, and the nations cannot endure His rage.

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58 thoughts on “Evidence for the Exodus

  1. Also, have you ever heard of another fundy atheist called “The Bible Skeptic”. J.P. Holding from Tektonics has made some video responses to his anti-theistic claims, such as the problem of our world, and Elisha and the Three Bears, but this guy made a video series against the cases for the fall of Jericho like the Bible says convincing that they’re nothing but “fairy tales”.

    What do you think of these videos he made, are they really that fallacious? I would really like to know.

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    • I think I’ve come across this YouTube channel before, it’s pretty nonsensical. I’m not watching 1-2 hours from this wacko, the data in the site of Jericho is consistent and compatible with a 1400 BC destruction of Jericho.

      For example, there were four scarabs found at Jericho (such as from the reign of the pharaohs Hatshepsut, Thutmose III, and a third one I forgot) that all date to periods after 1550 BC, rather between 1500-1450 BC. This would imply continuous occupation of Jericho even after 1400 BC.

      Secondly, we have the problem of the radiocarbon dates, which put the destruction of Jericho at about 1550 BC. There is a well known radiometric offset in Egyptian sites before 1400 BC of about 150 years on average in radiometric dating. Applying a 150 year radiometric offset to the 1550 BC radiometric dates of Jericho’s destruction, we very nicely find ourselves at 1400 BC for the destruction of Jericho when calibrating the radiometric results. I might soon write an article on this blog about Jericho to give a full detailed explanation.

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  2. Overall, I enjoyed the math and historical documentation provided here. But I struggled to read some paragraphs because of the number of misplaced apostrophes. If a word has an S added to the end, it is plural. If a word has apostrophe-S added to the end, it is possessive. Perhaps you could edit out those apostrophes.

    Like

    • Since a few weeks ago, I’ve been doing major edits to this page to add/remove information and expand on some portions of the page, and so this has caused some grammatical trouble in the page. But thanks for mentioning this, I’ll try to fix it up.

      Like

      • For this one, I went to Google images, typed in ‘Goliath’ I think, and found a picture I liked. I saved the picture to my files. So first you gotta find a picture and save it.

        The second thing you want to now do is go on the edit mode of whatever you’re writing. You’ll realize you can do a lot of things with the edit on the top, such as the bold, insert link, etc. But you want to look at the LEFT of your screen, not the top.

        On the left of your screen when you edit, there will be a few bars. Click on the one that says ‘Featured Image’, and then click ‘Set Featured Image’. Once you do that, your pictures that are saved onto your WordPress account will open — however you want to click on the ‘Add New’ on the top, and then find the picture you saved and then finally click ‘Set Featured Image’. Then you just save your blog. Let me know if you have any luck. God Bless, brother.

        Liked by 1 person

  3. CS made an article about you and saying that you are wrong about Exodus and there where a lot of poop which “disproves” Exodus. https://clubschadenfreude.com/2017/01/18/not-so-polite-dinner-conversation-960000-tons-of-what/#comment-10452

    There was an anti-theist saying that you are a “moron” and this Exodus thing was “debunked by Ron Wyatt. and this what she says. “I have also engaged this moron on the Exodus and for your benefit, in case you needed confirmation, he claimed there was physical evidence – Chariot Wheels on the floor of the Red Sea.
    So, 1. he was completely unaware this was a rank hoax by the late Ron Wyatt
    and 2. he was also not aware that Red Seed was a mistranslation. (Reed Sea of course)

    On both counts, he said I was wrong until he checked, and then when faced with the logistics of the numbers of people, he appeared to go on a frantic internet search to come back with apologetic misdirect regarding the Hebrew word eleph .

    “Quite disconcerting that even though that twit Wyatt died some time ago, this nonsense still gets trotted out.”

    I had never consider the ”poop issue” before. One would naturally expect with all this natural fertilizer the desert would have been one long oasis, like a paper trail stretching from Egypt to Canaan!

    “One might expect in the pursuit of some sort of legitimacy, Normal Christians (sic) would rubbish such claims at every opportunity.
    This does not seem to be the case.
    We even have Unklee making a case for Colorstorm over at Nate’s spot!”

    i can honestly say I have never read such a shitty religious post as this.
    😉”

    “typo.2. he was also not aware that *Red Seed was a mistranslation. (Reed Sea of course)

    *Red Sea, of course.
    Sorry.”

    And another fundy atheist saying about this. “I absolutely agree about the poo. Even if they dug privies, we should find them. And campfires. And piles of bones. And broken pots. And all the other junk that people leave behind.

    As an example for comparison, my town was the site of a winter encampment during the Civil War. There were about 30-40,000 men stationed here only during the cold months, only for a few years, 150 years ago. It’s an environment with lots of rain and weathering and soil disturbance. And do we find evidence of them? Yes, all over the freaking place! We still have trenches here and there. Before a school was built a few years ago they let a group with metal detectors on the site, and they turned up a lot of random metal bits related to soldiers and horse tackle. There aren’t any living trees dating to that time or earlier because they cut them all down for buildings and firewood. At a local festival a county archaeologist excavated a random single square foot in the historic area and turned up a civil war coat button.

    Now imagine two MILLION people living for forty years, in a desert without all the farming and weathering. The evidence for an occupation like that ought to be overwhelming. But there’s nothing.

    How do you respond to the article and the comments/claims about you on Exodus? Are you planning to make a article response and comment comeback to those who say that you are “wrong”?

    Like

    • Thanks for this. I’ve just read all the insanity on that guys blog and I will be definitely posting a response, but first I am waiting for his response to me asking him where he got the figure of 706 square miles for the region that the Hebrews populated during the exodus. I know this figure is complete crap, but I need to know where he got it from first.

      As for Arkenaten, the guy calling me a moron, you can view my debates with him in many of the comment sections on some of my posts, such as the one on James, my post on Jesus claiming to be God (the first one, not the new one) and the authorship of the Gospels as well, where I repeatedly bludgeoned him on virtually every topic we discussed.

      Like

      • So, I see that this guy was still saying that this chariot thing is a “hoax” which I don’t see why. I still see that this woman who is very evidently pompous, still says that Christians are usually very “ignorant” and “stupid”, and she still says that you bring no evidence. She was either not bothering it to read, she did just gives less craps for no reason or she’s just that stupid as far I see.

        Like

  4. Reblogged this on Not For Punks and commented:
    I love this post on scientific and archaeological evidence FOR the exodus. So many claim offhand the evidence isn’t there. Mostly we just accept that, and just accept it as God’s word. This blog makes a strong evidential case for the Exodus from Egypt.

    Like

  5. I enjoyed this post very much and look forward to reading more of them.

    I have a question for you if you do not mind. I have always thought a “generation of people” in the Bible was 40 years. Now you gave reference to 25 years. Could you please explain my misconception here. Great blog. God Bless, SR

    Like

    • Indeed, I have thought of this earlier. According to the Bible, a generation is 40-70 years. However, when the Bible says ‘generation’, it does refers to the passing away of the entire generation. So if John is born 100 AD, his generation will entirely pass away in 40-70 years. However, if you read the reference I gave on 25 years per generation, this simply measures the time between someone being born, and the age they have their kid. For example;

      John is born 100 AD, and has a son Kyle at 125 AD.
      Kyle is born 125 AD, and bears a son at 150 AD.

      Now, John’s generation is still alive, Kyle’s generation is also still alive at 150 AD, but between 100-150 AD, three generations have come forth. The others have not died off yet. 1 Chronicles 6:33-37 is clearly in reference to the age of when someone when they actually have a kid.

      Liked by 1 person

  6. As a current seminarian with previous BA in philosophy, I will leave you with a few follow-up comments.

    1. I truly enjoyed the article and the effort put forth to defend the veracity and reliability of Scripture.

    2. Accumulative Case arguments often fail. They fail because one must hold or accept each consecutive piece of evidence (or at least the majority in some cases) in order for them to work. In this case, the problem you arise with is that you often overstate your argument. Instead of arguing for the reliability of scripture (I understand you assume this and want to prove more than it’s mere reliability) you hope to prove that it indeed tells facts. None can disprove this because it indeed does display certain facts but these specific facts related to the exodus I think are a little thin. You asset your arguments to be much stronger than they are. This isn’t terrible, many people do this, but the world is in much need of more good, humble, and fair philosophers who do not assert ad hominem fallacies at their opponents but represent their views well. Don’t over assert your claims. If they were much lesser, I think your article would have much more power.

    3. As a Christian hoping to edifying other believers and perhaps persuade the atheist, understand your battle ground. You’re not fighting an intellectual battle no matter how much they want you to believe that. They do not abandon belief in God because it’s silly or ignorant. Paul says in Rom. 1 that they suppress the knowledge of God. No amount of evidence will convince the “atheist” because what he needs is not more evidence, what he needs is spiritual conversion; eyes to see and ears to hear; something that can only come through the sharing of the gospel.

    4. You’re a Christian. When the gentlemen above asserted you must be a new Christian, I did not take his attack to mean you were ignorant, but that you didn’t act like a Christian with the way you were behaving. Whether or not this is truly the way he meant it, think about your witness and be gracious. Be a lover of the truth and of God and His word, but don’t sacrifice that to stoop to the level of the average day philosopher. Aspire to be much more than that. Look up to those like Alvin Plantinga, Nicholas Wolterstorff, John Frame, Vern Poythress, etc. argue well yes, but represent the gospel as you do it.

    5. Keep up the good work. I admire what you’re doing. Look up the little book ‘Against the god’s’ by John Currid. He’s a great scholar and archeologist. This provides wonderful sources in ancient near east and I think is right up your alley.

    Grace and peace.

    Liked by 1 person

    • I appreciate your comment, but I must definitely challenge you on this. Firstly, although it’s great you have a BA in philosophy, this post has nothing to do with philosophy, rather only Egyptology and history.

      Now, your only objection seems to be that I have “overstated” my case. No, I have absolutely not. I’ve read over this post multiple times, and I only note the history, and its incredible convergence with the exodus document, and confirmation of the exodus. That is the point of this blog, to provide historical evidence for the exodus. I do this to a large extent. There is nothing “overstated”, perhaps you were just over-impressed at how much evidence there is here. I have many testimonies of just how incredibly shocked people were at just how amazingly this blog puts together all the evidence on the exodus.

      For a cumulative case to fail, some pieces of the case must be factually in error. Otherwise, the case works. On that notice, this blog definitely establishes the exodus, historically speaking, because I only reported on historical facts, not deductive arguments that can be challenged on their premises.
      Thanks for the post.

      Liked by 1 person

    • Kelle,

      Kelle,

      I have read and really thought about your reply here, and I must state, “I cannot agree with you on some points.”

      Intellectual Battle: Do we fight these sort of battles with atheist or anyone else for that matter? Of course we do. Intellect was used in the Bible. A few examples: When God was going to break His covenant with Abraham and make another with Moses, Moses used his intellect and appealed to God’s intellect in telling God, “He could not do this and go back on His word.” Through this “intellectual battle” (for lack of a better term) God kept His covenant with Abraham. When Jonah became angry with God, it was the “intellect of Jonah to which God appealed Himself to. The same holds true for when Paul rebuked Peter for not eating with the Gentiles. Intellectual battles are all through the Bible. The very first place most atheist go, is to the intellect. God did give to us a brain, and this brain has the ability to “reason.” God Himself used this brain and it’s reasoning many times in the Bible, with man. It is not wrong if we do the same.

      No amount of evidence will convince an atheist: Really? The Egyptians throughout the Exodus came to believe in God, because of the evidence brought forth from all the plagues and the parting of the sea. Through all of this evidence they knew God was fighting for Israel. The Centurion came to believe in the innocence of Jesus because of the evidence of His death on the Cross. Thomas believed it was Christ who actually rose, because of the evidence of His wounds. Many “atheist” came to believe in God because of evidence, in the Bible. How was the baptism of the Holy Spirit recognized? Through the evidence of speaking in tongues.

      Do people need conversion? Of course. A lot of the time they must “see” and “hear” the evidence with their eyes and ears. It is then that the “heart” must have the conversion. Then their spiritual eyes and ears can be opened to see, hear, and reason Scripture and their belief in it all. For most of us, it is not an overnight process. It takes time, study, and conversation.

      Conversion for most is a process of evidence. Just ask Jesus, because in the Gospels that is what He produced over and over and over. Signs, miracles, and wonders.

      The owner of this blog is “being attacked” by someone. They want to make him feel stupid and ignorant. This is so clear. I have someone like this on my blog and have had for years. He just never gets through on mine.

      These post are about historical evidence. I find it all extremely interesting to read. It is not about philosophy or a BA degree. It is not about if one more “e” goes into the word red or not. It’s history.

      No one should be attacked for taking the time to look all of this up and share it with the rest of us. No one has the “right” to tell a
      blog owner how they should handle their own blog. God Bless, SR

      Like

  7. Wikipedia, a ridiculously unreliable source. I’m sure if you e-mail this to Wood himself, he’ll educate you a little.

    Furthermore, ALLLLLL Historians have been wrong at least once. LOL. Wood is literally is literally one of the forerunners for findings of archaeology in Egypt right now, and he himself is shifting the field to a more pro-exodus view. He will hopefully go down in history for times to come.

    Like

  8. Before posting on my blog, cough up some respect. As for the post, I have a number of objections ready to the points being made, but the most important question must be answered first before I can proceed. Where exactly does the Bible say that this was located in Kadesh Barnea?

    Like

      • Did you not read my response? Where does the Bible say that these people went to Kadesh Barnea after the exodus? I’d be happy to respond to some of the points made in the post you gave, once you actually substantiate it is built on a factual assumption, where the entire thing falls apart if it is not.

        As for the Bible telling facts, this is pretty basic stuff. I can show you four major archaeological discoveries in the last three to four months alone, verifying 4-5 major Biblical narratives. I can show you 84 historically accurate facts in the last 16 chapters of the Book of Acts alone. The Holy Bible has been historically and scientifically confirmed literally hundreds of times. Your points degrade your credibility.

        Like

      • Finally, you have given a source. I have in fact read the Pentateuch, but it’s not as if I keep record of these quick names. Do you have any idea how many hundreds of historical sites are mentioned in the Bible? Am I supposed to remember all of them?

        As for your post — here are some facts to debunk it. Settlements HAVE been found in some places where the Israelite’s were during the exodus. http://www.biblearchaeology.org/post/2009/08/09/The-Exodus-Controversy.aspx
        (this article was actually published in a journal, it is peer-reviewed)

        OOPS.

        By the way, Kadesh Barnea was ONE of the MANY sites the Israelite’s were at. By the way, re-read this blog on the historical evidence for the exodus — just three minutes ago I made a major update, adding in tons of more evidence that I just found today.

        By the way, your username is misspelled. The pharaoh’s name was Ahkenaten, not Arkenaten. LOL. Just to troll you, Akhenaten was one of the earliest pharaohs of Egypt after the exodus took place, and the Amarna Letters (which date to 1400-1340 BC) reveal something SHOCKING. Akhenaten CONVERTED TO MONOTHEISM, sometime shockingly after the Egyptians were defeated by the Israelite’s… LOL… I guess this confirms the exodus as well. I should make another update to this blog adding this fact in. Thanks, your username reminded me of something very important.

        Like

      • My username is NOT misspelled you half wit. I chose this spelling, and the Gravitar for a reason.

        So you blundered with Kadesh Barnea.
        Yet another oops moment for you.
        I asked if you understood the term Historical Fiction?
        Go research it.
        I still believe you are a fraud.

        Like

      • Definitely misspelled from the correct spelling of Akhenaten. I evidently did not blunder regarding Barnea, I simply asked you to show that this really took place in Kadesh Barnea according to the Bible. Demanding evidence is not a blunder.

        As we’ve seen, there ARE settlements found in the places where the Israelite’s were. This means your link is wrong. In fact, if you read my entire citation, you’d realize numerous more reasons why the argument made in that blog is in error. Why can’t you come to terms with the fact that the exodus happened?

        Like

  9. LOL the Red Sea was not a mistranslation. Reed? ROFL.

    Now I am beginning to believe you are simply having a joke at your readers expense as no one who has made any casual study of the bible does not know the term Sea of Reeds and surely even you cannot be that bone ignorant as to not know this.

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    • “Sea of Reeds”

      I searched this up, and it is actually serious. Interesting. I’ll have to think about this one — but whether or not Moses split the Red Sea, or the nearby Sea of Reeds, it really is hardly relevant. I have no intention of changing the blog.

      Anyways, you’re obviously a joker. In all of my blogs that you’re trolling on, you simply regurgitate the same nonsense without any evidence, any arguments, whatsoever. Your claims have been soundly refuted, and thus I see no need in engaging in your pious insanity any more. If you want to contribute something serious into the discussion, aside from disregarding the major evidence I provided for the exodus, you can go right ahead. You claimed there were no archaeologists supporting the historical Biblical account, but I gave you a name, I gave you peer-reviewed material and information… I seriously don’t know what else you want. What more do I exactly need to do to convince you? If evidence and Scholarly confirmation is not enough, nothing is enough for you. My position is factual. No one is trying to fool anyone else, you’re simply a belligerent twat on this website whom cannot seem to understand basic concepts and reality.

      Like

      • Of course it isn’t relevant to one who is a fundamentalist.
        But for one who is in pursuit of truth it most certainly IS important. Crucial, even.

        As we have now established that the first irrefutable claim you have made is false how many others do you think are also false?

        Oh and the reason it could not possibly be the Red Sea is because papyrus (reeds) does not grow in salt water.

        See, even an atheist can teach you something about your religion.

        Oh, and for what it’s with no serious scholar or archaeologist gives Wood the time of day regarding his redating theories.
        Kenyon’s work at Jericho still holds as the benchmark and subsequent radio carbon dating confirms it.

        Maybe you would also like to investigate Kades Barnea where the Israelites supposedly spent 38 years before they ”invaded” Canaan?

        If you need any links let me know?

        ”Beligerant twat?”
        Serious? This is how you go about establishing you credibility?
        How old are you, 12?
        And when did you become a born again Christian by the way. Last month?

        Like

      • “the first irrefutable claim you made is false”

        Your dishonesty is incredible. Whether it was the Sea of Reeds, or the Red Sea, simply has nothing to do with my argument. It is actually irrelevant in its entirety, in every conceptual way, to the argument of my blog establishing great grounds for the historicity of the exodus. This is indeed the only argument you make. You have no other argument in your post, and thus, in its entirety, can be considered a refuted response. Bryant G. Wood is not taken seriously? No evidence to substantiate this of course, the position against the exodus in the field of archaeology is largely based on an ignorance of the evidence.

        Considering I have now dismantled all your suppositions, let me question you on yet another ludicrous claim of your own. First — you point to how Israelite’s did not invade Canaan for 38 years — what are you smoking? The Israelite’s were wandering in the dessert for 40 years, and this is because God was punishing them. Again, you are no more than a belligerent twat who is spamming the comment section of my posts without any useful insights, other than a quick “fun fact” about the Red Sea/Sea of Reeds.

        Like

    • Probably because it’s been 3,500 years since the exodus and footprints don’t last that long. Either way, this blog evidently shows there is overwhelming evidence in favor of the exodus of the Israelite’s from Egypt. Some of it is archaeological, some of it is scientific. There are many archaeologists that agree with me, although most are blind to this evidence and simply have conducted no research, they simply assumed based on the opinion of their seniors that the exodus did not happen.

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      • Ah, sarcasm! I was referring to a least a few shards of pottery. Maybe some weapons.
        The Settlement Pattern show there was no conquest and no archaeologist believes the biblical tale holds any veracity.

        Like

      • Shards of pottery? I don’t think the Israelite’s were interested in picking up their fancy pots when they were getting the heck away from Pharaoh’s army, which was about to slaughter them (until of course God annihilated them in the Red Sea). Many archaeologists think that that the exodus DID happen, just at a much smaller scale than is Biblically recorded. Some archaeologists, of course, do accept it. There was a film of archaeology released a few years ago (I have admittedly not watched it) showing archaeologists who both argue for the exodus, and those who argue against it, and the evidence each side brings, and thus shows both sides of the story. The documentary I’m talking about is called ‘Patterns of Evidence: the exodus’ in case you wanted to see it.

        Of course, admittedly, the large majority of archaeologists do not acknowledge the obvious historicity of the exodus, regardless of what scale it actually happened on, and this blog does in fact show it happened.

        Like

      • The Red Sea was a mistranslation. The term was Reed Sea.
        That is first year bible study, for the gods sake!
        I am aware of Patterns of Evidence.

        No archaeologist as far as I am aware accepts that an Exodus occurred as depicted in the bible.
        None.
        Unless you can offer a name?
        Feel free.

        Like

      • LOL the Red Sea was not a mistranslation. Reed? ROFL.

        “I am aware of Patterns of Evidence”

        Next sentence you say…

        “No archaeologist as far as I am aware accepts that an Exodus occurred as depicted in the bible”

        Clearly a contradiction in terms. Can I offer a name? Bryant G. Wood. Not very hard. Can I reference you to some peer-reviewed papers arguing for the historicity of the exodus? Yes. It’s titled ‘Toward Pinpointing the Timing of the Egyptian Abandonment of Avaris during the Middle of the 18th Dynasty.’

        I have not read it yet, because I have only received it today (lucky for you to have commented at just the right time), but I plan to do so in the next few days, if not today. So, what else are you looking for? I gave you major evidence in this blog I’ve written for the historicity of the exodus. I’ve given you a very good archaeologist who accepts it. I referenced you to a very recent peer-reviewed paper arguing for the historicity of the exodus. Anything else you need before converting to Christianity?

        Like

      • Hey bro…remember the words of Christ – “He said to him, ‘If they do not hear Moses and the Prophets, neither will they be convinced if someone should rise from the dead.'”” ‭‭Luke‬ ‭16:31‬ ‭ESV‬‬. Love your work, stay out of the mud. It’s a waste of time, and more importantly energy. And some people are going to enjoy bringing you down. In joining in that kind of argument you convince neither him nor anyone else.

        Like

      • Thanks a lot for your words (and reblogging the post). In truth, sometimes I do crack in their heads to some extent, but these debates I have where I slice down the atheists are also very beneficial for myself. On top of the hundreds of hours I conduct, debating these people allows me to know of more resources and arguments on the subject. This has lead me to many disco kernes — in fact, this post we are commenting on wouldn’t exist if it weren’t for my debates with some of these jokers.

        Liked by 1 person

      • Fair enough. But know that it just doesn’t help the impression someone reading your blog has of you, and I do believe it could turn off someone you could otherwise have a chance to convert.

        Like

      • Thanks for the advice. I’ll pay attention to how respectful I am in the future, but sometimes I view authority as something that brings dissidents to provide greater respect for yourself as well. I ended up actually coming to good terms with Arkenaten.

        Liked by 1 person

      • Just some friendly advice. I’ve gotten much of it, have never been real good at applying it myself. Just a little transparency. In other words, just take it for whatever it’s worth. Like I said, I love the work you do.

        Like

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