History for Atheists

Tim O’Neill’s History for Atheists is perhaps one of the best and certainly the most articulate blog I’ve ever read, and probably the only one where I’ve ever refreshed the page hoping to see a new post listed there. This blog explains how New Atheists are getting their popular history WRONG!

What is “History for Atheists”?

This blog is for articles, book reviews and critiques relating to “New Atheist Bad History” – the misuse of history and the use of biased, erroneous or distorted pseudo history by anti-theistic atheists. The author is an atheist himself so no, this is not some theist apologetics blog. It is simply an attempt to call out and correct the misuse of history, because rationalists should not base their arguments on errors and distortions.

Resources

Ancient Literature

The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature (ETCSL) (contains about 400 compositions of Sumerian work), MIT Classics Archive (contains 441 ancient works by 59 authors, including virtually all classic Greco-Roman works relevant), Internet Ancient History Sourcebook (Fordham University), Pyramid TextsEarly Christian Writings Website, Early Jewish Writings Website, Christian Classica Ethereal Library (CCEL), Routledge Selected Works, Orthodox CN, New Advent Fathers, Logos Products (use Logos search engine to find virtually any church works), works of Francis Bacon, Imperium Romana (e.g. see resources links), Erenow Books (incredible free book source)

• Near Eastern works and Genesis: Enuma Elish, Epic of Atrahasis, Epic of Gilgamesh, Sumerian King List (geneaologies in Genesis 5), Rulers of Lagas (geneaologies in Genesis 5), Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta, Enki and Ninmah

• Important manuscripts: Brooklyn Papyrus, John Rylands P52, 4Q521 (Messianic Apocalypse, also see here and here), 4Q246 (Aramaic Apocalypse, see here), War Scroll (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, fragments), Peutinger Plates, Life of Constantine

The Book of Acts: A Series in Faith and Ethics, Hurtado’s List of 2nd-3rd Century Christian ManuscriptsPersecution of Christians sources — See further resources from the Center for the Study of Christian Origins, including all early Christian and Jewish writings/apocrypha, etc, including open access JOURNALS here Glossolalia, Journal of Hebrew Scriptures, Grace Theological Journal (1980-1991), Themelios, Bulletin for Biblical Research, Studia Antiqua, Histos, (open issue of NTS here), Journal of the Jesus Movement in its Jewish Setting

•  Useful historical resources: High Middle Ages Course Guidebook (Philip Daileader, includes all relevant further readings), Ancient Mosaic Pavements (Rachel Hachlili, 2009 Brill), Discoveries in the Judean Desert: XXXII Qumran Cave 1 (ed. Emmanuel Tov, Clarendon Press 2010) also see entire MessianicEssenes Resources, Ancient Greece: An Illustrated History (2011), Roman timeline 161 – 640 AD in Adrian Goldsworthy’s How Rome Fell, Chronology (pp. 425 – 440) — also see glossary in following pages

Tools

• The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago (most recent volume containing over 28,000 Akkadian words spanning from 2400 BC – 100 AD), Pennsylvanian Sumerian Dictionary

• New Testament Virtual Manuscript Room (allows you to browse through, search, zoom in and look at the Greek/original language text of all New Testament manuscripts), Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts, The Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library (and also see Israel Museum Digital Dead Sea Scrolls here), Nestle Aland Historical-Critical Text of the Greek New Testament, Index of Biblical Quotations in Early Christian Literature (list of all patristics, text of Septuagint, Vulgate, and all other ancient editions of the Bible), The Stanford Geospatial Network Model of the Roman World, Pelagios Map of the Roman World, Map of the Ancient World


Paul’s chronology, see Robert Jewett A Chronology of Paul’s Life, Jerome Murphy-O-Conner St. Paul’s Corinth, Gerd Ludemann Paul Apostle to Gentiles: Studies in Chronology, Joseph A. Fitzmeyer Paul (NJBC), Enlightenment Books: Jonathan Israel’s Top Five and The Enlightenment (Anthony Padgen), Britannica Guide to Ancient Civilization: Mesopotamia, Empires of Ancient Persia, Ancient Mesopotamia, Empires of Ancient Mesopotamia, The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt, Roman Republican Legionary 298-105 BC, Western Civilizations (18th ed. 2014)

BioLogos • One of Darwin’s Greatest Supporters Was a Devout Christian A Farewell to Alms: A Brief Economic History of the World (Princeton 2007) Recommended by Dennis Prager: God and the Astronomers, The Intelligent Investor, Galaxies in the Universe (Cambridge), also see Introduction to Buddhism, Logic: A Very Short Introduction, Dinosaurs: A Very Short Introduction, Free Will: A Very Short Introduction, Ghandi: A Very Short Introduction, Particle Physics: A Very Short Introduction, The Brain: A Very Short Introduction, Consciousness: A Very Short Introduction, Consciousness: An Introduction, Hyperspace and Parallel Worlds (Michio Kaku), The Fabric of the Cosmos and The Hidden Reality (Brian Greene), How the Mind Works (Steven Pinker), Maps of Meaning: The Architecture of Belief (Jordan Peterson), Ordinary Men, The Gulag Archipelago, The Language of God, Brave New World (Aldous Huxley)

What Archaeology Is Telling Us About the Real Jesus (National Geographic)  Unearthing the World of Jesus (Smithsonian) • Did David and Solomon’s United Monarchy Exist? Vast Ancient Mining Operation May Hold Answers (Haaretz), Jordan Peterson on the Easter Story


Scholarly Books Freely Available Online (year noted in most recent edition available online, 383 available so far, I will randomly list additional information in the brackets at the end of each book as I choose, a minority of links are download links or take you to pages where the book can be downloaded, including most very short introductions)

Edited Volumes (110)

Companions (43): Harvey, David: The Cambridge Companion to Marx (1991); Kretzmann, Norman: The Cambridge Companion to Aquinas (1993); Chappelle, Vere: The Cambridge Companion to Locke (1994); Bockmuehl, Markus: The Cambridge Companion to Jesus (2001); Nalder, Steven: A Companion to Early Modern Philosophy (2002); Hardie, Philip: The Cambridge Companion to Ovid (2002); Gracia, George and Timothy Noone: A Companion to Philosophy in the Middle Ages (2002); Bunnin, Nicholas and E. P. Tsui-James: The Blackwell Companion to Philosophy (2nd ed., 2003); McGrade, A.S.: The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Philosophy (2003); Inwood, Brad: The Cambridge Companion to the Stoics (2003); Flood, Gavin: The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism (2003); Blau, Judith: The Blackwell Companion to Sociology (2004); Hsia, R. Po-chia: A Companion to the Reformation World (2004); Snell, Daniel: A Companion to the Ancient Near East (2005); Harrison, Stephen: A Companion to Latin Literature (2005); Choueiri, Youssef: A Companion to the History of the Middle East (2005); Bird, Graham: A Companion to Kant (2006); Potter, David S.: A Companion to the Roman Empire (2006); Abu-Rabi, Ibrahim: The Blackwell Companion to Contemporary Islamic Thought (2006); Pearson, Keith: A Companion to Nietzsche (2006); Ahbel-Rappe, Sara: A Companion to Socrates (2006); Benson, Hugh: A Companion to Plato (2006); Rippin, Andrew: The Blackwell Companion to the Qur’an (2006); Ogden, Daniel: A Companion To Greek Religion (2007); Erdkamp, Paul: A Companion to the Roman Army (2007); Ferrari, G.R.F.: The Cambridge Companion to Plato’s Republic (2007); Woodard, Roger: The Cambridge Companion to Greek Mythology (2007); Marincola, John: A Companion to Greek and Roman Historiography, Vol. 1-2 (2007); Rüpke, Jörg: A Companion to Roman Religion (2007); Carriero, John: A Companion to Descartes (2008); Erskine, Andrew: A Companion to Ancient History (2009); Gleason, Abbott: A Companion to Russian History (2009); Anagnostopoulos, Georgios: A Companion to Aristotle (2009); Craig, W.L. and J.P. Moreland: The Blackwell Companion to Natural Theology (2009); Aune, David: The Blackwell Companion to the New Testament (2010); Harrison, Peter: The Cambridge Companion to Science and Religion (2010); Llyod, Alan: A Companion to Ancient Egypt, Vol. 1-2 (2010); Nadeau, Randall: The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Chinese Religions (2012); Emmanuel, Steven: A Companion to Buddhist Philosophy (2013); Hans, Beck: A Companion to Ancient Greek Government (2013); Hammer, Dean: A Companion to Greek Democracy and the Roman Republic (2015)

Other Edited Texts (67): The Cambridge History of Classical Literature, Vol. 1, Vol. 2 (1982-5); Plantinga, Alvin and Nicholas Wolterstorff: Faith and Rationality (1983); Wright, N.T. and L.D. Hurst: The Glory of Christ in the New Testament: Studies in Christology (1987); Waithe, Mary: A History of Women Philosophers (1987); Neusner, Jacob and William Green, Ernest Frerichs: Judaisms and Their Messiahs at the Turn of the Christian Era (1987); Aune, David: Greco-Roman Literature and the New Testament (1988); Faraone, Christopher and Dirk Obbink: Magika Hiera: Ancient Greek Magic and Religion (1990); Liverani, Mario: Akkad: The First World Empire (1993); Evans, Craig and James Charlesworth: The Pseudepigrapha and Early Biblical Interpretation (1993); Parkinson, G.H.R. and S.G. Shanker: Routledge History of Philosophy [10 volumes, 1993-1997, download from academia page]; D.J.W. Beattie and M.J. McNamara: The Aramaic Bible: Targums in their Historical Context (1994); Daly, M.W.: The Cambridge History of Egypt [Vol. 1-2, 1998]; Algra, Keimpe, and Jonthan Barnes, Jaap Mansfeld, and Malcolm Shofield: The Cambridge History of Hellenistic Philosophy (1999); Barton, John: The Biblical World, Vol. 1 (2002); Landes, Richard and Andrew Gow, David Meter: The Apocalyptic Year 1000: Religious Expectation and Social Change, 950-1050 (2003); Goetz, Hans-Werner and Jorg Jarnut: Regna and Gentes: The Relationship between Late Antique and Early Medieval Peoples and Kingdoms in the Transformation of the Roman World (2003); Hauser, Alan and Duane Watson: The History of Biblical Interpretation Vol. 1 (2003); Dunn, James D.G. and Scot McKnight: The Historical Jesus in Recent Research (2005); Curtis, John and Nigel Tallis: Forgotten Empires: The World of Ancient Persia (2005); Greene, Ellen: Women Poets in Ancient Greece and Rome (2005); Allmand, Christopher: The New Cambridge Medieval History [All 7 Volumes, 2005-2008); Cameron, Averil et al.: The Cambridge Ancient History [2006-7, all 14 volumes]; Skarsaune, Oskar, and Reidar Hvalvik: Jewish Believers in Jesus: The Early Centuries (2007); Johnston, Sarah Iles: Ancient Religions (2007); Leick, Gwendolyn: The Babylonian World (2007); Cohen, Shaye and Joshua J. Schwartz: Studies in Josephus and the Varieties of Ancient Judaism (2007); Neusner, Jacob and Bruce Chilton: In Quest of the Historical Pharisees (2007); Geary, Patrick et al.: Franks, Northmen, and Slaves: Identities and State Formation in Early Medieval Europe (2008); Noble, Thomas and Julia Smith: The Cambridge History of Christianity, Vol. 3 (2008); Sabin, Philip, and Hans Van Wees and Michael Witsby: Cambridge History of Greek and Roman Warfare, Vol. 1 (2008); Hsia, Po-Chia: The Cambridge History of Christianity, Vol. 6 (2008); Scheidel, Walter and Ian Morris, Richard Saller: The Cambridge Economic History of the Greco-Roman World (2008); Scheidel, Walter and Ian Morris: The Dynamics of Ancient Empires: State Power from Assyria to Byzantium (2009); Kruger, Michael and Charles Hill: The Early Text of the New Testament (2012); Green, Joel and McDonald Lee Martin: The World of the New Testament: Cultural, Social and Historical Contexts (2013); El-Badawi, Emran: The Qur’an and the Aramaic Gospel Traditions (2014); Sugimoto, David: Transformation of a Goddess: Ishtar – Astarte – Aphrodite (2014); Holladay, Carl, and John T. Fitzgerald, Gregory E. Sterling, James W. Thompson: Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity (Vol. 1-2, 2014)

Encyclopedias, Handbooks, Guides, and Dictionaries (12)

Leick, Gwendolyn: A Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Mythology (1991); Toorn, Karel, and Bob Becking, Pieter Horst: Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible (1999); Lindow, John: Norse Mythology: A Guide to the Gods, Heroes, Rituals, and Beliefs (2001); Bunson, Margaret: Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt (2002); Huyssteen, J. Wentzel: Encyclopedia of Science and Religion, Vol. 1-2 (2003); Leick, Gwendolyn: Historical Dictionary of Mesopotamia (2003); Bertman, Stephen: Handbook to Life in Ancient Mesopotamia (2003); Adkins, Lesley and Roy A. Adkins: Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome (2004, updated edition); English, Edward: Encyclopedia of the Medieval World (2005); Jones, Linsday: Encyclopedia of Religion: Aaron to Attention (2005, 2nd ed.); Bryce, Trevor: The Routledge Handbook of the Peoples and Places of Ancient Western Asia: The Near East from the Early Bronze Age to the Fall of the Persian Empire (2009); McGuckin, John Anthony: The Encyclopedia of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, Vol 1-2 (2nd ed., 2011)

Ancient Writings and Translations (13)

Betz, Hans: The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation (1986); Danby, Herbert: The Mishnah (1993); Charlesworth, James: The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha: Apocalyptic Literature & Testaments (1983); Porten, Bezalel: The Elephantine Papyri in English: Three Millennia of Cross-Cultural Continuity and Change (1996); Milner, N.P.: Vegetius: Epitome of Military Science (1996); Robinson, James: The Nag Hammadi Library (1999); Cameron, Averil and Stuart Hall: Eusebius: Life of Constantine (1999); Ehrman, Bart: Lost Scriptures: Books that Did Not Make It Into the New Testament (2003); Heckel, Waldemer and J.C. Yardley: Alexander the Great: Historical Sources in Translation (2004); Christianity in Late Antiquity – 300-450 C.E. (2004); Luck, Georg: Arcana Mundi: Magic and the Occult in Greek and Roman Worlds (2006); Pietersma, Albert and Benjamin Wright: A New English Translation of the Septuagint (2007); Hayes, Evan and Stephen Nimis: Lucian’s On the Syrian Goddess (2013)

Very Short Introductions (43)

Beard, Mary: Classics: A Very Short Introduction (with John Henderson, 1995); Arnold, John: History: A Very Short Introduction (2000); Griffiths, Ralph and John Gillingham: Medieval Britain: A Very Short Introduction (2000); Doyle, William: The French Revolution: A Very Short Introduction (2001); Scruton, Roger: Kant: A Very Short Introduction (2001); Polkinghorne, John: Quantum Theory: A Very Short Introduction (2002); Howard, Michael: Clausewitz: A Very Short Introduction (2002); Craig, Edward: Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction (2002); McMahon, Robert: Cold War: A Very Short Introduction (2003); Wilson, Penelope: Hieroglyphs: A Very Short Introduction (2003); Christian Art: A Very Short Introduction (2004); Segal, Robert: Myth: A Very Short Introduction (2004); Woodhead, Linda: Christianity: A Very Short Introduction (2004); Pinch, Geraldine: Egyptian Myth: A Very Short Introduction (2004); Shaw, Ian: Ancient Egypt: A Very Short Introduction (2004); Sidebottom, Harry: Ancient Warfare: A Very Short Introduction (2004); Richards, Julian: The Vikings: A Very Short Introduction (2005); Nesbitt, Eleanor: Sikhism: A Very Short Introduction (2005); Wood, Bernard: Human Evolution: A Very Short Introduction (2005); Tyerman, Christopher: The Crusades: A Very Short Introduction (2005); Gutting, Gary: Foucault: A Very Short Introduction (2005); Keown, Damien: Buddhist Ethics: A Very Short Introduction (2005); Poole, Adrian: Tragedy: A Very Short Introduction (2005); Kelly, Christopher: The Roman Empire: A Very Short Introduction (2006); Chapman, Mark: Anglicanism: A Very Short Introduction (2006); Dan, Joseph: Kabbalah: A Very Short Introduction (2006); Beller, Steven: Antisemitism: A Very Short Introduction (2007); Morales, Helen: Classical Mythology: A Very Short Introduction (2007); Illife, Rob: Newton: A Very Short Introduction (2007); Stannard, Russel: Relativity: A Very Short Introduction (2008); Boyle, Nicholas: German Literature: A Very Short Introduction (2008); O’Collins, Gerald: Catholicism: A Very Short Introduction (2008); Bushman, Richard: Mormonism: A Very Short Introduction (2008); Kerr, Fergus: Thomas Aquinas: A Very Short Introduction (2009); Garnett, George: The Norman Conquest: A Very Short Introduction (2009); Cunliffe, Bary: Druids: A Very Short Introduction (2010); Silverstein, Adam: Islamic History: A Very Short Introduction (2010); Carrasco, David: The Aztecs: A Very Short Introduction (2012); Gwynn, David: The Roman Republic: A Very Short Introduction (2012); Rossabi, Morris: The Mongols: A Very Short Introduction (2012); Millward, James: The Silk Roads: A Very Short Introduction (2013); Cline, Eric: The Middle Ages: A Very Short Introduction (2013); Rubin, Miri: The Middle Ages: A Very Short Introduction (2014); Bowden, Hugh: Alexander the Great: A Very Short Introduction (2014); Sarris, Peter: Byzantium: A Very Short Introduction (2015)

Monographs (202)

Aberth, John: Plagues in World History (2011)

Adams, Colin and Ray Laurence: Travel and Geography in the Roman Empire (2001)

Albrecht, Michael: Cicero’s Style: A Synopsis (2003)

Allan, Arlene and Ian Storey: A Guide to Ancient Greek Drama (2005)

Archi, Alfonsi: Ebla and its Archives: Texts, History, and Society (2015)

Bachrach, Bernard: A History of the Alans in the West From Their First Appearance in the Sources of Classical Antiquity through the Early Middle Ages (1973)

Backman, Clifford: The Worlds of Medieval Europe (2003)

Bagnall, Nigel: The Punic Wars, 264-146 BC (2005)

Barrett, Anthony: Livia: First Lady of Imperial Rome (2002)

Bauckham, Richard: The Theology of the Book of Revelation (2003)

Beattie, Gillian: Women and Marriage in Paul and his Early Interpreters (2005)

Beard, Mary: Religions of Rome Vol. 1 and Vol. 2 (with John North, Simon Price, 1998, Cambridge University Press); Classical Art: From Greece to Rome (with John Henderson, 2001)

Beck, Roger: The Religion of the Mithras Cult in the Roman Empire: Mysteries of the Unconquered Sun (2006)

Binger, Tilde: Asherah: Goddesses in Ugarit, Israel and the Old Testament (1997)

Blomberg, Craig: Introduction to Biblical Interpretation: Revised and Expanded (1993)

Boccaccini, Gabriele: Middle Judaism: Jewish Thought, 300 B.C.E. to 200 C.E. (1991, second link)

Bomgardner, D.L.: The Story of the Roman Amphitheatre (2002)

Bremmer, Jan: Initiation into the Mysteries of the Ancient World (2014)

Bruce, F.F.: The Canon of Scripture (1988)

Bryce, Trevor: Ancient Syria: A Three Thousand Year History (2014)

Burkert, Walter: Greek Religion (1985); Ancient Mystery Cults (1987)

Burstein, Stanley: The Reign of Cleopatra (2004)

Cameron, Averil: The Mediterranean World in Late Antiquity AD 395-600 (1993); Procopius and the Sixth Century (2005, link click download); The Byzantines (2006, link click download)

Campbell, Brian: War and Society in Imperial Rome, 31 BC-AD 284 (2002)

Casson, Lionel: Libraries in the Ancient World (2002)

Chadwick, Owen: The Early Reformation on the Continent (2001)

Chapman, David W.: Ancient Jewish and Christian Perceptions of Crucifixion (2008)

Charvat, Petr: Mesopotamia Before History (2002)

Cobban, Alan: English University Life in the Middle Ages (1999)

Cohen, Shaye: From the Maccabees to the Mishna (2006, 2nd ed.)

Collins, Derek: Magic in the Ancient World (2008)

Cooke, Bernard and Gary Mace: Christian Symbol and Ritual (2005)

Cotter, Wendy: Miracles in Greco-Roman Antiquity: A Sourcebook (1999)

Craig, W.L. and J.P. Moreland: Philosophical Foundations for a Christian Worldview (2003)

Cunningham, Lawrence: A Brief History of: Saints (2005)

Curran, John: Pagan City and Christian Capital: Rome in the Fourth Century (2002)

Davies, Brian: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion (1993)

Dawkins, Richard: The Extended Phenotype (1982); The Blind Watchmaker (1986); The Selfish Gene (2006, 30th Anniversary Edition); The God Delusion (2006)

Dench, Emma: Romulus’ Asylum: Roman Identities from the Age of Alexander to the Age of Hadrian (2005)

Dowden, Ken: European Paganism: The realities of cult from antiquity to the
Middle Ages (2000)

Dunn, James D.G.: Christology in the Making: A New Testament Inquiry into the Origins of the Doctrine of the Incarnation (2nd ed., 1989); Jesus Remembered: Christianity in the Making (2003); Jesus, Paul, and the Gospels (2011)

Ehrman, Bart: The Orthodox Corruption of Scripture (1993); A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings (1997); Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium (1999); The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings (2000, 2nd ed.); Truth and Fiction in the Da Vinci Code (2004); The Text of the New Testament (with Bruce Metzger, 4th ed., 2005); Misquoting Jesus: The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible and Why (2005); The Lost Gospel of Judas Iscariot: A New Look at Betrayer and Betrayed (2006); Studies in the Textual Criticism of the New Testament (2006); Forged: Writing in the Name of God (2011); How Jesus Became God (2014)

Eliade, Mircea: The Sacred and the Profane (1957); A History of Religious Ideas (Vol. 1, 1978; Vol. 2, 1982; Vol. 3, 1985)

Erich, Gruen: The Last Generation of the Roman Republic (1995)

Eshel, Hanan: The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Hasmonean State (2008)

Esler, Philip: The First Christians in their Social Worlds: Social-scientific approaches to New Testament interpretation (2003)

Fantham, Elaine: The Roman World of Cicero’s De Oratore (2004)

Feldman, Louis H. and Meyer Reinhold: Jewish Life and Thought among Greeks and Romans (1996)

Finkelstein, Israel: The Bible Unearthed (2001)

Fisher, Greg: Between Empires: Arabs, Romans, and Sasanians in Late Antiquity (2011)

Fitzmyer, Joseph A.: To Advance the Gospel (2nd ed. 1998)

Flusser, David: Jewish Sources in Early Christianity (1987)

Fried, Johannes: The Middle Ages (2015)

Goldsworthy, Adrian: Caesar: Life of a Colossus (2006); How Rome Fell: Death of a Superpower (2009)

Goodman, Martin: The Ruling Class of Judea: The Origins of the Jewish Revolt Against Rome A.D. 66-70 (1987)

Grabbe, Lester: A History of the Jews And Judaism in the Second Temple Period, Vol. 2 (2008); An Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel and Jesus (2010)

Graeme, Smith: A Short History of Secularism (2007)

Grant, Edward: God and Reason in the Middle Ages (2004)

Guthrie, Donald: New Testament Introduction (1990, 4th ed.)

Haber, Susan: “They Shall Purify Themselves”: Essays on Purity in Early Judaism (2008)

Halsall, Guy: Barbarian Migrations and the Roman West, 376-568 (2007)

Harper, Kyle: Slavery in the Late Roman World (2011)

Harvey, Peter: An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices (2013, 2nd ed.)

Hekster, Olivier: Rome and Its Empire, AD 193–284 (2008)

Hengel, Martin: Judaism and Hellenism: Studies in their Encounter in Palestine
during the Early Hellenistic Period (1974, 2 volumes); Crucifixion: In the Ancient World and the Folly of the Message of the Cross (1977); The ‘Hellenization’ of Judaea in the First Century after Christ (1989); The pre-Christian Paul (1991)

Hezser, Catherine: Jewish Slavery in Antiquity (2005)

Hodgkin, Luke: A History of Mathematics: From Mesopotamia to Modernity (2005)

Holland, Tom: Persian Fire (2005)

Horbury, William: Jewish Messianism and the Cult of Christ (1998)

Horowitz, Wayne: Mesopotamian Cosmic Geography (1998)

Hunt, Joel and William M. Schniedewind: A Primer on Ugaritic Language, Culture, and Literature (2007)

Hurtado, Larry: One God, One Lord: Early Christian Devotion and Ancient Jewish Monotheism (2nd ed., 1998 [most recent 2015 edition not here]); At the Origins of Christian Worship (1999, alternate link here); Lord Jesus Christ: Devotion to Jesus in Earliest Christianity (2003), The Earliest Christian Artifacts: Manuscripts and Christian Origins (2006)

Jensen, Robin Margaret: Understanding Early Christian Art (2000)

Jeremias, Joachim: Jerusalem in the time of Jesus: An investigation into economic and social conditions during the New Testament period (3rd ed+author revisions, 1967) (although this work contains much important information, it is overall outdated)

Johnson, Luke Timothy: Among the Gentiles: Greco-Roman Religion and Christianity (2009)

Jones, Timothy Paul: Misquoting Truth: A Guide to the Fallacies of Bart Ehrman’s Misquoting Jesus (2007)

Keppie, Lawrence: Understanding Roman Inscriptions (1991)

Kennedy, Hugh: Mongols, Huns and Vikings: Nomads at War (2003)

Kloppenborg, John: Q, the Earliest Gospel An Introduction to the Original Stories and Sayings of Jesus (2008)

Knohl, Israel: The Messiah Before Jesus: The Suffering Servant in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2000)

Knoppers, Gary: Jews and Samaritans: The Origins and History of their Early Relations (2013)

Komoszewski, J. Ed and Robert M. Bowman Jr.: Putting Jesus In His Place (2007)

Köstenberger, Andreas J., and Michael J. Kruger: The Heresy of Orthodoxy: How Contemporary Culture’s Fascination with Diversity Has Reshaped Our Understanding of Early Christianity (2010)

Kulikowski, Michael: Rome’s Gothic Wars: From the Third Century to Alaric (2007)

Laurence, Roy and Joanne Berry: Cultural Identity in the Roman Empire (2003, download link)

Landels, John: Music in Ancient Greece and Rome (2002)

Lange, Nicholas: An Introduction to Judaism (2002)

Levick, Barbara: Vespasian (1999)

Lindsay, Hugh: Adoption in the Roman World (2009)

Liverani, Mario: Uruk: The First City (2006)

Lonsdale, David J.: Alexander the Great: Lessons in Strategy (2007)

MacGeorge, Penny: Late Roman Warlords (2002)

Machiela, Daniel: The Dead Sea Genesis Apocryphon: A New Text and Translation with Introduction and Special Treatment of Columns 13–17 (2009)

Madden, Thomas: The Concise History of the Crusades (2014, 3rd ed.)

Magdalino, Paul: Byzantium in the Year 1000 (2003)

Martin, Thomas R.: Sovereignty and Coinage in Classical Greece (1985); Ancient Greece: From Prehistoric to Hellenistic Times (2nd ed., 2013)

Matthews, Gareth: Augustine (2005)

McClellan, James, and Harold Dorn: Science and Technology in World History: An Introduction (2nd. ed, 2006, link click download)

McGrath, Alister: The Twilight of Atheism (2004), The Dawkins Delusion (2007)

Mettinger, Tryggve: The Riddle of Resurrection: Dying and Rising Gods in the Ancient Near East (can be downloaded here, 2001)

Mieroop, Marc Van Der: A History of the Ancient Near East. ca 3000-323 BC (2007, 2nd ed.)

Morford, Mark: The Roman Philosophers: From the time of Cato the Censor to the death of Marcus Aurelius (2002)

Morgan, Gwyn: 69 A.D.: Year of the Four Emperors (2006)

Neusner, Jacob: The Rabbinic Traditions About the Pharisees Before 70, Parts 1-3 (1971) Four Stages of Rabbinic Judaism (1999); Three Questions of Formative Judaism (2002); The Halakhah: Historical and Religious Perspectives (2002)

Nicholson, Helen: Love, War and the Grail: Templars, Hospitallers and Teutonic Knights in Medieval Epic and Romance (2001)

Nickelsburg, George: Ancient Judaisms and Christian Origins (2003)

Oberman, Heiko: The Two Reformations: The Journary from the Last Days to the New World (2003)

Odahl, Charles: Constantine and the Christian Empire (2004)

O’Donnell, Mark D. Stansbury: A History of Greek Art (2015)

O’Donoghue, Heather: From Asgard to Valhalla: The Remarkable History of Norse Myths (2007)

Pagels, Elaine: The Gnostic Gospels (1989)

Parker, D.C.: An Introduction to the New Testament Manuscripts and Their Texts

Plantinga, Alvin: God, Freedom, and Evil (1977), Warrant and Proper Function (1993); Warranted Christian Belief (2000)

Plokhy, Serhii: Origins of the Slavic Nations: Premodern Identities in Russia,Ukraine, and Belarus (2006)

Pomeroy, Sarah B.: Women in Hellenistic Egypt (1984); A Brief History of Ancient Greece: Politics, Society, Culture (2004, other authors: Stanley Burstein, Walter Donlan, and Jennifer Roberts, download link also available)

Pourshariati, Parvaneh: Decline and Fall of the Sasanian Empire: The Sasanian–Parthian Confederacy and the Arab Conquest of Iran (2008)

Powell, Barry: Homer (2004)

Rahe, Paul A.: The Grand Strategy of Classical Sparta: The Persian Challenge (2015)

Rajak, Tessa: Josephus: The Historian and His Society (2nd ed. 2002)

Reuter, Timothy: Germany in the early middle ages c. 800-1056 (1991)

Rhodes, P.J.: A History of the Classical Greek World: 478–323 BC (2006)

Richardson, John: The Language of Empire: Rome and the Idea of Empire from the Third Century BC to the Second Century AD (2008)

Saldarini, Anthony: Pharisees, Scribes and Sadducees in Palestinian Society: A Sociological Approach (2001)

Samuelsson, Gunnar: Crucifixion in Antiquity (2011)

Saul, Nigel: Chivalry in Medieval England (2011)

Schutz, Herbert: The Carolingians in Central Europe, Their History, Arts and Architecture: A Cultural History of Central Europe, 750-900 (2004)

Seager, Robin: Tiberius (2005, 2nd ed.)

Segal, Alan: Two Powers in Heaven (1977)

Shapin, Steven: The Scientific Revolution (1996)

Sharples, R.W.: Stoics, Epicureans and Sceptics: An Introduction to Hellenistic Philosophy (2003)

Shotter, David: Nero (1997)

Souphoulis, Panos: Byzantium and Bulgaria, 775–831 (2012)

Southern, Pat and Karen Dixon: The Late Roman Army (1996)

Stol, Marten: Women in the Ancient Near East (2016)

Strousma, G.G.: Another Seed: Studies in Gnostic Mythology (1984)

Swinburne, Richard: The Coherence of Theism (1993); Faith and Reason (2005, 2nd ed.)

Taylor, Joan: The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012)

Temin, Peter: The Roman Market Economy (2013)

Thomas, Carol G.: Alexander the Great in His World (2007)

Tolan, John: Saracens: Islam in the Medieval European Imagination (2002)

Toorn, Karel Van Der: Scribal Culture and the Making of the Hebrew Bible (2007)

Tov, Emmanuel: Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible (1992); The Greek and Hebrew Bible: collected essays on the Septuagint (1999)

Treadgold, Warren: A History of the Byzantine State and Society (1997)

VanderKam, James C.: The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Bible (2012)

Voorst, Robert E. Van: Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence (2000)

Ward, Benedicta and Lesley Smith: Intellectual Life in the Middle Ages (1992)

Watson, Alaric: Aurelian and the Third Century (2003)

Watt, James: China: A Dawn of a Golden Age, 200-750 AD (2005)

Wiesehöfer, Josef: Ancient Persia: From 550 BC to 650 AD (2001)

Wright, N.T.: The New Testament and the People of God: Christian Origins and the Question of God (1992); What Saint Paul Really Said: Was Paul of Tarsus the Real Founder of Christianity? (1997, imprecise page numbers); The Meaning of Jesus: Two Visions (1999, authored with Marcus Borg); The Resurrection of the Son of God (2003); Paul: In Fresh Perspective (2005); Surprised by Hope: Rethinking Heaven, the Resurrection, and the Mission of the Church (2007); Justification: God’s Plan and Paul’s Vision (2009)

Great Medieval Thinkers Monograph Series

Duns Scotus (1999), Boethius (2003), Al-Kindi (2007), Anselm (2009), John Buridan (2009), Hugh of Saint Victor (2009)

Scholarship of the Modern Period (3)

Herbel, D. Oliver: Turning to Tradition: Converts and the Making of an American Orthodox Church (2014)

Graham, Loren and Jean-Michel Kantor: Naming Infinity: A True Story of Religious Mysticism and Mathematical Creativity (2009)

Knoeff, Rina: Herman Boerhaave (1668-1738): Calvinist chemist and physician (2002)


As noted many times before, New Atheist historiography is quaintly old fashioned and largely Victorian. So it happily embraces the idea that the Greeks and Romans were rational, enlightened and almost secular and that their rosy-hued world was destroyed by the wicked Christians, who plunged the world into a theocratic, anti-scientific and politically oppressive Dark Age, dominated completely by an all-powerful Catholic Church. But this was thankfully relieved by the Renaissance and the Protestant Reformation, which broke the power of the Church and ushered in a secular Europe that in turn gave rise to modern science, the Enlightenment, the Industrial Revolution and finally, that pinnacle of historical progress, our good selves. This is a cheery, nineteenth century positivist conception of history as an inevitable “onward and upward” progression and one that Herbert Butterfield skewered nicely in his The Whig Interpretation of History (1931). As Butterfield noted, the Whiggish historical positivism of the Victorians and Edwardians was based on a series of assumptions, prejudices and suppositions, each one more dubious than the next. –Tim O’Neill, An Islamic “Reformation”? – Pseudo History Meets Politics

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